Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography for my Metanarrative Argument

Amoss jr. George. “Three Aspects of Metanarrative.” The Postmodern Quaker, 10 Jan. 2011,

While Amoss doesn’t go into an extensive evaluation of metanarratives, he does lay the foundations out for metanarratives that we are now familiar with. I feel like this will aid my argument by comparing his ideas to those of the stories that I am analyzing.

Baker, Anaya M. “Metafiction or the Self-Conscious Narrative.” Owlcation, Owlcation, 1 Feb. 2018,

Baker’s argument breaks down the common elements of metafiction and relates that to the inner-exploration of both audience and character. This is a vital portion of my argument. Self-reflection is one of the roots of metafiction and we don’t see that in more detail than in any of the three works that I am exploring. The Winchester brothers have to face their past in explicit detail. Not just their actions, but their emotions as well. Those who know the series know that Dean hates that more than anything. Harold Crick is confronted with his quirks and his inner monologue when he begins to be narrated. Adnan and Sarah come face to face with the realities of the case and decipher for themselves what is true and what is not.


Bennett, Philip E. “The Mirage of Fiction: Narration, Narrator, and Narratee in Froissart’s Lyrico-Narrative Dits.” The Modern Language Review, vol. 86, no. 2, 1991, pp. 285–297. JSTOR, JSTOR,

In this essay, Philip Bennett analyses the narrative function in Froissart’s Dits. This may not seem connected to the present, but the story is actually what I would describe as an ancient version of Stranger than Fiction. By looking at Froissart’s narrative decisions and the character’s awareness of the narrator, we can see the consequences of the reaction between narrator and character.

Dillon, Amanda. “Prism, Mirror, Lens’: Metafiction and Narrative Worlds in Science Fiction.” Core, Prism, Mirror, Lens’: Metafiction and Narrative Worlds in Science Fiction.  

This essay on metafiction in science fiction is very interesting and relevant to look, particularly with Supernatural. Dillon argues that science fiction and metafiction were made for each other. The structure of science fiction holds the elements of metafiction very well. I can see this in supernatural because the characters are caught in a continuous loop of monsters, apocalyptic events, daddy issues, etc. This leaves room for any manner of layered narratives to occur because they live in a world that exceeds the bounds of this very normal world.

Hesse, Monica. “’Serial’ Takes the Stand: How a Podcast Became a Character in Its Own Narrative.”, Chicago Tribune, 8 Feb. 2016,

This article is basically a rundown of the hearing for Adnan Syed in February 2016. However, if you take a look at the voices heard in this overview, it is clear that there is a narrative playing out with people from all backgrounds, biases, and intentions. This will aid my argument by setting up an idea of the framework of Serial and just how much it has evolved as a narrative.

“Introduction to Roland Barthes, Module on the Five Codes.” Introduction to Judith Butler, Module on Gender and Sex,

Roland Barthes, as I understand, was a leader in the exploration of narratives. This website has a list and explanation of his theoretical codes that work together to create the narratives that a story employs. I am using this as a base to determine what sort of narratives I am dealing with and how the narrator-character relationship varies from one code to the next.

Keirnan, Louise. “’Serial’ Podcast Producers Talk Storytelling, Structure and If They Know Whodunnit.” Nieman Storyboard Dan Koeppel and Narrative TensionPopular Mechanics Not for the Faint of Heart Comments,

In this article, the produces of Serial sit down and discuss the podcast at length. This includes giving insight to the narrative process that they built over the course of the project. Obviously, first-hand knowledge is what you want when exploring the structure of a work.

Neumann, Brigit. “Metanarration and Metafiction.” Narrator – the Living Handbook of Narratology, Hamburg University Press,

This article basically gives me a clear break down of metanarrative and metafiction. While I do know what the differences are, I do believe that Neumann’s analysis is more in-depth and therefore can be used more effectively in clarifying my argument.

Ratcliff, Amy.“5 Times SUPERNATURAL Went Meta.” Nerdist, 1 Oct. 2015,

This source is just a list of the most prominent times that Supernatural went Meta. Nothing to much to add to my argument other than a clear pattern from the writers of the series. Also a good look at what’s classified as meta by the writers of the show.

Ricks, Thomas E. “Narratives Are about ‘Meaning,’ Not ‘Truth’.” Foreign Policy, Foreign Policy, 3 Dec. 2015,

While this source isn’t specifically about metanarrative, it does cover the idea of narratives. Narratives reach every aspect of social interaction. Ricks’ article addresses the difference between truth and meaning. Narratives are about meaning and not about truth. The story has to make sense to the audience and depending on who that audience is, the truth may not be necessary. Ricks is relating this to the narrative of ISIS.

Serial Podcast